Sensory and Neuromotor System Disorders CRO


In vivex is a preclinical Contract Research Organization ( CRO )
specialized in the evaluation of sensory and neuromotor system disorders

Our preclinical research validated models

In vivex offers a wide range of sensory and neuromotor preclinical services including in vivo and in vitro validated models. Based on our extensive experience and scientific excellence of sensory and motor functions, we provide customized studies to meet our Sponsor's goals in bringing emerging therapies to the market.
Motor and sensory system
validated models
Hearing
validated models
Ophthalmology
validated models
Motor and sensory system models
Nerve injury neuropathy

Sciatic nerve crush is a rapid and reproducible method to analyze nerve demyelination and axonal degeneration due to nerve injury and to determine the efficacy of new pharmacological candidates for peripheral nervous system degeneration disorders. This model presents sciatic nerve conduction and neuromuscular disorders, and axonal and Schwann cell degeneration four days after sciatic nerve damage.
Diabetic neuropathy

The diabetic mouse model db/db manifests similar human diabetic disorders as morbid chronic hyperglycemia, obesity, pancreatic beta cell atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, nerve histological disorders, hearing loss, sensory neuropathy and retinopathy, making this mouse a robust and reproducible model to study the efficacy of new drug candidates for diabetic neuropathy.
Charcot Marie Tooth disease

Human CMT1A neuropathy is characterized by a duplication of the PMP22 gene leading to a progressive demyelination. The C3-PMP22 mice express human PMP22 gene making these mice a robust and reproducible model to study the efficacy of new drug candidates in CMT1A disorder. Myelination is delayed in these mice resulting in reduced numbers of myelinated fibers in young mice. Also sciatic nerve conduction and neuromuscular disorders are observed in this model at 6 months old.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

In mice, repeated cisplatin injections induce peripheral neuropathy mimicking human side effect of chemotherapy. Repeated injections of cisplatin induce axonal and myelin degeneration leading to nerve conduction and neuromuscular impairment at day 45. This model allows to study the efficacy of new pharmacological candidates in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Inflammatory neuropathy

Inflammatory neuropathies can be caused by infections or an autoimmune process. In mice, injections of PMP22 protein induce axonal and myelin degeneration leading to sciatic nerve conduction and neuromuscular impairment and increasing inflammatory biomarkers. This model mimics the inflammatory neuropathy observed in human and it's recognized as a robust and reproducible model to study the efficacy of new drug candidates in neuroinflammatory disorders.
Sensory neuropathy

In mice, injection of resiniferatoxin induces sensory neuropathy characterized by an increase of thermal latency and inflammatory biomarkers and decrease of the number of intraepidermal nerve fibers. This model allows to determine the efficacy of new compound in a fast model of the sensory neuropathy.
Age related neuropathy

The SAMP8 mouse model is a strain selected for a phenotype toward either accelerated senescence and has been identified as suitable for use as models in gerontological research, widely used in aging research to study phenotypes such as immune dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, neuromuscular degeneration, hearing loss, osteoporosis and brain atrophy. This model allows to study the efficacy of new pharmacological candidates in the age-related neuropathy mimicking human senescence.
Spinal cord injury

Induction of spinal cord damage in rodent model has been validated as an analog to human spinal cord injury caused by impacts such as vehicle accidents. Fourteen days after spinal cord damage, this model presents walking performance disorders, decrease of grip strength and locomotion disorders.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ALS ) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease, which results in the destruction of the motor neurons. The transgenic mouse Prp-TDP43A315T develops a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease with pathology reminiscent of ALS. This strain recapitulated many of the pathological features of ALS in humans and it promised to become an important in vivo screening tool for ALS therapies more clinically relevant that SOD1 mice.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy DMD

Duchenne muscular dystrophy ( DMD ) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting due to the absence of dystrophin protein that causes degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscle. The mdx mouse model presents muscle weakness, elevated plasma creatine kinase ( a biomarker of muscle damage ), and limb muscle progressive degeneration and necrosis mimicking the human DMD disease phenotype.
Neuropathic pain

Chronic neuropathic pain affects one-sixth of the population. Neuropathic pain usually results from pathology in the peripheral nervous system. Diseases such as diabetes, infection, nerve compression, nerve trauma, and autoimmune disease can cause neuropathic pain. In vivex developed and validated three rodent preclinical models of neuropathic pain in order to study the efficacy of new compounds targeting this disorder :
  • Sciatic nerve chronic ligation
  • Diabetic neuropathic pain
  • Chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain



Hearing models
Noise-induced hearing loss

Hearing impairments induced by exposure to loud noises have been widely described in the literature. In humans, this noise causes direct mechanical damage to the cochlear hair cells and support cells. In mouse, acoustic trauma also induces permanent hearing loss, and cochlear hair cell and auditory nerve degeneration making this mouse a robust and reproducible model to study the efficacy of new drug candidates in hearing impairment induced by noise exposure.
Antibiotic-induced hearing loss

In humans, one of the side effects of antibiotic treatment, such a gentamicin, is the ototoxicity leading to hearing loss. In rodents, injections of gentamicin lead to a permanent hearing loss and cochlear hair cell degeneration mimicking human side effects. This model allows to determine the efficacy of new pharmacological candidates in hearing loss induced by antibiotic treatment.
Cisplatin-induced hearing loss

Chemotherapy cisplatin is used for the treatment of bladder, ovarian, and testicular cancers but this compound can damage the cochlea and peripheral nerves leading to a permanent hearing loss in humans. In mice, single or repeated injections of cisplatin also induce cochlear hair cell loss leading to a permanent hearing loss. This model mimics human cisplatin-induced deafness and allows to study the efficacy of new pharmacological candidates in chemotherapy-induced hearing disorders.
Age-related hearing loss

The SAMP8 mouse model is a strain selected for a phenotype toward either accelerated senescence with a mean life span of 10 months. These mice have been identified as suitable for use as models in gerontological research, widely used in aging research to study phenotypes such as immune dysfunction, hearing loss, cochlear hair cell loss, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. This model allows to study the efficacy of new pharmacological candidates in the age-related hearing loss mimicking human senescence.
Tinnitus

Tinnitus affects around 5% of the world's population. The causes are multiple and their physiological origin is still unclear, mixing central and peripheral disorders. In rodents, as observed in humans, salicylate administration ( aspirin ) induces temporary tinnitus leading to changes in ABR waves and increasing spontaneous activity of auditory cortex and increasing plasmatic BDNF biomarker. This fast and robust model allows to determine the efficacy of new compound in tinnitus disorders.



Ophthalmology models
Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a disease that affects the retinal ganglion cells. Although the specific cause of glaucoma is unknown, the main risk factor for the disease is high intraocular pressure. In mouse, the injection of hypertonic saline solution into the episcleral venous plexus induces an increase in intraocular pressure leading to glaucoma. This model exhibits a reduction of the retina thickness and decreased visual acuity and is recognized in the scientific community as a robust and rapid model for studying the efficacy of drug candidates in preventing glaucoma-induced retinal degeneration.
Diabetic retinopathy

The diabetic mouse model db/db manifests similar human diabetic disorders as morbid chronic hyperglycemia, obesity, pancreatic beta cell atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, hearing loss and retinopathy. This model exhibits a reduction of the retina thickness and decreased visual acuity making this mouse a robust and reproducible model to study the efficacy of new drug candidates for diabetic retinopathy.
Congenic retinal degeneration
( Retinitis pigmentosa )

Retinitis pigmentosa represents a group of genetic diseases characterized by the progressive loss of photoreceptors and dysfunction of the pigment epithelium. Ophthalmoscopic examination of Pde6brd1 mutant mouse shows a spotted retina, revealing retinal degeneration and progressive blindness. Several publications have demonstrated that these mice reproduce the characteristics of the neurodegenerative process that occurs in the human eye and that it is recognized as a robust model for the study of the efficacy of new drug candidates targeting congenic retinal degeneration.